Report on cyber crime

Report on cyber crime

Abstract

As Internet users grow around the world, the cybercrimebecoming a concern. The media play an important role in exposingusers to the risk of crime. As well as spreading the news of such

crimes.

This research discusses the risk of cybercrimes on the basicobjectives of information security : confidentiality, integrity, andavailability of data and system. The probability of role of cybercrimes on Hajj and Omrah is also discussed. 

Introduction

The using of digital communication is significantly increasing inrecent years through the world. This growth was accompanied byan increase in the rate of crimes committed through the Internetand computer networks. This type of crime is difficult to trace,collect physical evidence against it, and reaching the offender.

Those difficulties create an ideal environment for crime.Electronic crime affects many aspects of public life, whethereconomic, social or ethical. This research will clarify thecybercrime in the media and its impact on confidentiality, integrityand availability of data and systems.

The media are divided into traditional media such as television,radio, newspapers and magazines, and modern media such associal networks, e-mail, live broadcast services and others.

Cybercrimes may be more frequent in modern media due toeasy access, exploitation of victims in the absence of adequatesupervision and protection against these criminals.

In the USA, the social media are considered as an importantsource to sell and share data by cybercriminals. 53% of all fraudactivity is related to carding and service offerings. (2016: CurrentState of Cybercrime, 2016)

Definition 

Cybercrime is a term used to broadly describe criminal activityin which computers or computer networks are a tool, a target, or aplace of criminal activity – (Das and Nayak, 2013)

There is no general agreement on a specific definition ofcybercrime. Therefore, recognition of crimes relied on the types ofpotential offenses, and their impact on data and system. Which

are:

  1. Offenses against the confidentiality, integrity and availability ofcomputer data and systems.
  2. Computer-related offenses.
  3. Content-related offenses.
  4. Copyright-related offenses. (Gercke, 2012)

Literature review

An article published in 2016 discussing the types ofcybercrimes in Saudi Arabia and the Anti Cyber Crime Law. Thisarticle estimates of more than 3.6 million victims of cybercrime inyear 2012. 40% of the social networking users in the Kingdomhave fallen victim to cybercrime on social networking platforms.20% of the social network users have been victims of social ormobile cybercrime in the past 12 months compared to 21%globally. (Elamin, 2016)

The media are a possible target for cybercrime. Although itmay be a tool for amplifying the magnitude of cybercrime.

An article published in 2008 discussing how the media announce ahigh incidence of cybercrimes while the official statistics reportmuch lower than claimed offenses.

There are possible causes of this phenomena . The newspublished in the media may have been inadvertently inflated thecybercrimes out of proportion for the purpose of increasing thereadership. On the other hand, it may be an exaggeration in thereporting of cybercrime to spread fear and thus enhance theinterests of cyber security companies. (Wall*, 2008)

Cybercrime in the media

The general cyber security objectives are: confidentiality,availability; and integrity. Most of the cybercrimes breach morethan one of those objectives, which lead to overlap between them.

Confidentiality

In information security, confidentiality “is the property, thatinformation is not made available or disclosed to unauthorizedindividuals, entities, or processes”. (“Information Security”)

This important legal principle in cyber security can breach byillegal access to a computer system(hacking). Cracking is illegalaccess to computer systems and creating virus, cracks, spyware,and destroying data. (Elamin, 2016)

Hacking attacks can be done against personal computers orthrough networks. Many ways are used by offenders includeinstallation of hardware or software based keylogging to recordany password used by the victim. Also, they use spoofing websiteto let users disclose their password. (Gercke, 2012)

The criminals aims usually to break password protectedwebsites or computer system. This lead to disclose top secretinformation and may also lead to manipulation of data. Therefore,hacking is the first important step for other offenses. Lack ofprotection, and developing of hacking software that automate theattacks are an important risk for the development of hackingcrimes.

Interestingly, hacking is not considered illegal by some legalsystems unless there is a subsequent offense like data modifying ordamage. New media like email and social networks are commonlyhacked. It results in loss of important and confidential data.(Gercke, 2012)

Integrity

Data integrity means “maintaining and assuring the accuracyand completeness of data over its entire life-cycle. This means thatdata cannot be modified in an unauthorized or undetected manne”.

(“Information Security”)

Interception of communication and data transferring can affectthe integrity and privacy of data and systems. New media are anideal environment for such violation. The offenders can target bothfixed lines or internet based communications. (Das and Nayak,2013)Data transferred through public wireless is easy to intercept andmodify it. People are the weakest point in the security of system asthey did not use protection measures to insure security of theirown sensitive data.

Electronic attacks targeting websites sometimes aim to changeor delete data.Illegal access to an electronic site to change thedesign of this site, or damage it, or Modification is considered anelectronic crime according to the system of combat ComputerCrimes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Availability

Data interference by deleting, manipulation or limited accesscan result in significant damage. This offense violates availabilityand even integrity of data.Criminals can interfere data physically, virus, worm ordenial-of-service (DoS) attacks. These attacks may prevent theusers from reaching emails, computer systems, social networkaccounts and more. This type of cybercrime can attack anywebsites; including famous channel’s website like DoS attacks

against CNN at 2000. (Sofaer and Goodman, 2001)

Websites and social networks are among the most importantmedia outlets. Prevent users from accessing to it , disrupting, ordisabling by any means, electronic crime according to the system

of combating information crimes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Cybercrime and religious seasons (Hajj and Omrah)

Hajj and Umra are the most important religious seasons inwhich a large number of people gather in a limited place. TheGovernment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia offers a great deal of

service to the pilgrims. However, we find many news and rumorspublished to prove that the Kingdom is not able to manage the Hajjseason successfully. Criminals use the media of all kinds to do so.

Defamation is a form of cybercrime. Defamation of individuals andorganizations by spreading rumors is one of the forms ofcybercrime. Perhaps this is the biggest cyber crime faced by the

government of Saudi Arabia.

Must be addressed to this crime by monitoring media attacksthrough various media to know their source and analysis of theircontent and deal with them through the governmental entity hasthe technical and administrative capabilities. Especially withspread of the social networks.

Using the internet in support of terrorism through the creationof websites or the dissemination of information materials through social networks is illegal according to Saudi anti cyber crime law2007. (Elamin, 2016)

Up to now, no other media dependant cybercrimes reportedduring Hajj and Omrah. Definetly, the prevention is better than cure. The terrorist cybercrimes is expected at mega events and precautions should be addressed and spreading awareness of information security to guarantee the safety of pilgrims.

 Conclusion

The media in all its forms are a double-edged sword. In the eraof open spaces, users must be aware of the necessary measuresto protect their data through their use of Internet-based media.

Cyber security should also be upgraded for government agencies and large companies.

Users should also be aware of the anti cyber crime law and how to report offenses.

References 

2016: Current State of Cybercrime. (2016). 1st ed. [ebook] USA:RSA, pp.1 – 7. Available at:

https://www.rsa.com/content/dam/rsa/PDF/2016/05/2016-currentstate-of-cybercrime.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2017].

Elamin, B. (2016). Cyber Crime in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: The Threat Today and the Expected Future. Information andKnowledge Management, 3(12).

Gercke, M. (2012).Understanding cybercrime: phenomena,challenges and legal response. 1st ed. International telecommunication union.

Das, S. and Nayak, T. (2013). IMPACT OF CYBER CRIME:

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES.International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies, 6(2), pp.142-153.

Sofaer, A. and Goodman, S. (2001). Cyber Crime and Security The Transnational Dimension. 1st ed. p.14.

Wall*, D. (2008). Cybercrime, media and insecurity: The shaping of public perceptions of cybercrime1. International Review of Law,Computers & Technology, 22(1-2), pp.45-63.

“Information Security”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 20 May2017.

An Interactive Model for Creating Awareness and Consequences of Cyber-crime in People with Limited Technology Skills 

Abstract 

Technology is being used every day by the people irrespective of their

technology skills. People with limited technology skills are not aware of what

actions are legal and what actions are illegal according to the laws. In this paper,

an interactive model for creating awareness and consequences of cyber-crime in

people with the limited technology skills is proposed. 

Keywords Regulator · Media · Technology skills · Cyber-companies · Social

websites 

1 Introduction*

The 21st century is the era of information technology. In past people have different

mechanism to share the information which were very slow, expensive, and unreliable

and not enough to fulfill needs of all users. The people use to sit physically

in their social circles for the social activities. For education purposed, they

physically gathered at some location like schools and colleges. They use to have

different games and it was necessary for all the participants to be present at one

location for playing the game. The messages were sent by writing them on thepages and later sent through different means like postman; to be a carrier. The

money was kept in the form currency notes at the homes and banks.

Currently, the internet is medium to pass any kind of information from one location

to another location. The social websites are available for people to create

their social circles and friendships. The messages are sent from one place to another

place by emails and different chat applications. Now people can play games

by sitting on different locations and can compete with each other. The money is

transferred online from one location to another location. All this is achieved by

internet which is the backbone of current technology.

The world of internet is known as cyberspace. This world has its methods of

communication, financial transaction, sports and developing social circles. In the

cyber space, some actions are legal and some actions are not legal. The illegal

actions in the cyberspace are known as cybercrime. There are people who are

aware of what they are doing in the cyberspace, so they are well aware of the status

of their actions whether legal or illegal. But there are great number of people

who are illiterate with reference to the usage and working of cyberspace and they

do illegal actions unknowingly. There is need to create awareness about cybercrime

and it consequences especially for the people with limited literacy and

knowledge regarding rules and working in cyber world. The related work is given

below.

In [1], the current status of cybercrime related to financial based crime, nonfinancial

matters, the threat to public and business are given and strategies again

mentioned crimes are discussed. The conventional crimes, cyber-crimes, different

models of committing cyber-crimes and cyber-crime prevention strategies are

given in [2]. The basic measures required to curb the cybercrimes and spamming

activities in Kenya are discussed in [3]. In [4], the current concepts and strategies

of cybercrime and cybersecurity, possible elements of cybercrime policies and

strategies are discussed. The motivations behind the cybercrimes, analysis of behavior

of cybercrimes and the impact of cybercrime on the society are discussed in

[5]. In [6], the phenomenon of cybercrime, topology of cybercrime, challenges of

fighting cybercrime and anti-cybercrime strategies are discussed. The awareness

level about cybercrimes and cyber law in Bangladesh is given in [7]. In [8], the

impact of cybercrime on business and losses due to these crimes are presented.

The cybercrime and what should do when you become victim of cybercrime is

described in [9]. In [10], the cybercrime measurements, legislation and framework

to handle cybercrime, investigation of cybercrime and electronic evidence required

for handling cybercrime are discussed. In [11], the components of malicious

activities are briefly described. The cybercrime related to identity theft, the

nature and type of cybercrime and consequences of cybercrime in tertiary institution

are discussed in [12]. The cybercrime in banks, the actors involved in cybercrime

and its impact on banking finance is described in [13]. In [14], the existence

of law against cybercrime and impact of cybercrime on the society in Nigeria is

presented.

There is very less work related to creating awareness about cybercrime and

consequences of cybercrime for the people who are not familiar with the technology.

So in this paper, an interactive model for creating and increasing awareness about

cyber-crimes and its consequences for people with limited technology skills and

literacy is proposed. 

2 Proposed Model

The proposed model is to create awareness of cyber-crime and its consequences in

the common public especially with low skills in technology. The components of

proposed model are Government, Regulators, Media, Cyber Companies and User

with Limited Technology skills. All the components collaborate with each other

and focus is on User with Limited Technology Skills as given in Fig. 1. The purpose

is to create awareness about cyber-crime and it consequences for the user

having limited technology skills.

The user must not perform any action which is not known to him. In the proposed

model, the use must provide proper feedback to the Media and Cybercompanies

so that they can convey to the Regulators to modify the policies. The

limited Technology skilled people keep on learning with proper feedback mechanism

in our proposed model. The user held responsible for committing a cybercrime

faces the consequences. The proposed model also suggests the design of

consequences which should be developed in way that the user can become more

skilled about the technology in the future. 

4 Conclusion

The technology is vital in the current time. The people use the technology in their

daily activities. The people do actions which are not suitable for the others and

sometimes they cross the legal boundaries. This paper proposed an interactive

model which shows the interaction between different components of the proposed

model. The proposed model focuses on creating the awareness and consequences

of cyber-crime in the people with the limited technology skills. 

References

  1. Department, S.o.S.f.H.: Cyber Crime Strategy. Surrey (2010)
  2. Dashora, K.: Cyber crime in the society: problems and preventions. Journal of Alternative

Perspectives in the Social Sciences 3(1), 240–259 (2011)

  1. Magutu, P.O., Ondimu, G.M., Ipu, C.J.: Effects of cybercrime on state security: types,

impact and mitigations with the fiber optic deployment in Kenya. Journal of Information

Assurance &Cybersecurity2011(1), 1–20 (2011)

  1. Crime, G.P.o.C.: Cyber Crime Strategies (2011)
  2. Saini, H., Rao, Y.S., Panda, T.C.: Cyber-crimes and their impact: a review. International

Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) 2(2), 202–209 (2012)

  1. Sector, T.D.: Understanding CyberCrime: Phenomena. Challenges and Legal Response

(2012)

  1. Khan, K.A.: Awareness towards cybercrime & cyber law. Insight Bangladesh Foundation

(2013)

  1. Study of the impact of cyber crime on business in canada. International Cyber Security

Alliance (2013)

  1. Cruz, A.: Cyber Crime and how it effect you. Cyber Security Tips 7(1), 2 (2013)
  2. Crime, U.N.O.o.D.a.: Comprehensive Study on cybercrime (2013)
  3. The economic impact of cybercrime and cyber espionage. Centre for strategic and international

studies (2013)

  1. Okeshola, F.B., Adeta, A.K.: The nature, causes and consequences of cyber crime in

tertiary institutions in Zaria-Kaduna state, Nigeria. American International Journal of

Contemporary Research 3(9), 98–114 (2013)

  1. Raghavan, A.R., Parthiban, L.: The effect of cybercrime on a bank’s finances. International

Journal of Current Research and Academic Review 2(2), 173–178 (2014)

  1. Olayemi, O.J.: A socio-technological analysis of cybercrime and cyber security in

Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 6(3), 116–125 (2014)

In this HW2, avoid your answers to the questions to be on the paper writing style trying to be specific relating to the paper scientific content. Try giving impression that you are clearly understanding the research as master student. You should think of the objective and sprit of every question then answer accordingly and briefly.

The questions to be answered included few new inquires modified from before, as stated below:

1)    State the reference paper you are targeting, it should include: Authors, Title, Publication Journal/Conference, Publisher (if known), Date of publication.

2)    What is the problem to be solved (briefly written to reader not specialized in the field)? Clarity of the problem of the paper to be solved. Is the problem real and common ?

3)    What is the method used for solving the problem? Talk about usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed solution idea. Is the solution convincing and justifiable ?

4)    Can you suggest a modification to the work? What do you have options to modify this idea. Can you improve it in any way? Any scientific modification can be justified is acceptable?

5)    Write in not more than 1-page: Strengths and Weaknesses of the work? Discuss Practicality of the idea in general. Can it be used in real life?

6)    Is the coverage of the topic comprehensive and balanced? Write your opinion?

7)    Can you easily evaluate the technical correctness of the work?

8)    What is your opinion about the title ? Explain briefly?

9)    What is your opinion about the abstract? is it covering the idea clearly?

10)    What can be your plan to benefit from this current paper in improving HW1 (previous incomplete work) put your plan in points?

11)    Are the references suitable? Could you find other references related and need to be included?

12)    Is the overall organization of the paper acceptable and easy for readers to scientifically grasp?

13)    Is the paper fluently written (in English), is its English understood?

14)    What did you learn from this (homework 2) exercise?

Solution 

  1. State the reference paper you are targeting, it should include: Authors, Title, Publication, Journal/Conference, Publisher (if known), Date of publication.

Akram S., Ramzan M., Haneef M., Ishtiaq M. (2016), An Interactive Model for Creating

Awareness and Consequences of Cyber-crime in People with Limited Technology Skills. In:

Latifi S. (eds) Information Technology: New Generations. Advances in Intelligent Systems andComputing, vol 448.Springer, Cham.First online on 29 March 2016.

  1. What is the problem to be solved (briefly written to reader not specialized in the field)?

Clarity of the problem of the paper to be solved. Is the problem real and common?

Main focus of this study is creating awareness and consequences of cyber crimes to

people with limited technology skills. This study proposed clear and real life implementation ofinteractive model for increasing awareness and consequences about cyber crimes. This can beseen in day to day life. If we look recent times we can talk about how ransomware affected lifeof normal internet user. To prevent cyber crimes this study proposed four entities providing helpto the user with limited technology skills.

  1. What is the method used for solving the problem? Talk about usefulness and

effectiveness of the proposed solution idea. Is the solution convincing and justifiable ?

Difference Reduction is method used to increase the awareness in the people with a

limited technology skills. Proposed interactive model is break down into five entities which areGovernment, Regulator, Media, Cyber Companies and User with Limited Technology.

Government will provide rules and regulations to the other entities in the model. Regulators willwork on the policy given by the Government. Lastly media and Cyber Companies will giveinformation to the users.

Proposed model will be much effective is there is no inner loop holes the system. Which

means regulators, media and cyber companies as to be strictly imply the policies given by thegovernment. Solution is fully convincing because it focusing to solve the problem at root level.

  1. Can you suggest a modification to the work? What do you have options to modify thisidea. Can you improve it in any way? Any scientific modification can be justified isacceptable?

One cannot deny that the online environment cannot and will never be clear of cyber

crimes due to the Internet’s unique architecture. But the proposed study is having some

loopholes in the inner structure of the interactive model. With the cyber companies and mediahaving full authority in control of the people with little technology skills. Government has toconsider only the authorized cyber companies will have control over the user other than that thismodel can be implemented in real life.

  1. Write in not more than 1-page: Strengths and Weaknesses of the work? DiscussPracticality of the idea in general. Can it be used in real life?

Strengths:

  • Prevention of cyber-crime highlight that government leadership plays animportant part in crime prevention, combined with cooperation. If we look atproposed approach in this study it will clearly involved with governmentcollaborated with regulators and media.
  • Every component with is own model. implementation of total approach is very

easy. If we consider real life situations the user just need to concat the cybercompanies for the help.

  • The motivation behind approach to curb the fake news menace that has become

major issue.

  • Most focus of the study is at precautions at root level giving awareness andconsequences of the cyber crime.

Weaknesses

  • The practical explanation of the approach is not clearly explained in the study.
  • Abstract of the paper is not apt the study.
  • Proof and correctness of the interactive model.
  • Has mentioned above inner loopholes in the preventing cyber crimes
  1. Is the coverage of the topic comprehensive and balanced? Write your opinion?

If we look at the study it is not totally comprehensive but it well balanced. For example if

we take look at the approach and the implementation. The approach of the interactive model istotally balanced from end to end. But the study does not include total implementation of theapproach in the real life scenario.

  1. Can you easily evaluate the technical correctness of the work?

Every component is decoupled themselves we can construct and maintain easily.

  1. What is your opinion about the title? Explain briefly?

Title is very apt for the study because more focus of the study in on creating awarenessabout cybercrime in cyberspace.

  1. What is your opinion about the abstract? is it covering the idea clearly?

The abstract could have been more specific about research paper. Abstract did not any

brief idea about the approach of the study. It just briefed about what is cyber crime and someexplanation about the how technology used in recent times.

  1. What can be your plan to benefit from this current paper in improving HW1 put your plan in points?

In HW1 have more about the network layer which have how confidentiality, integrity and

availability of data. We look at the paper by Akram S., Ramzan M., Haneef M., Ishtiaq M theyclearly explained the approach to prevent cyber crimes in the cyberspace. We look at theapproach it is clearly difference reduction model and given clarity of the every component.

  1. Are the references suitable? Could you find other references related and need to beincluded?

Most of the references quoted in this research paper are IEEE research paper.

This paper has clear idea about how the cyber crimes are evolved in the cyber space and whatare the possibilities to prevent them. The paper which took my eye isOlayemi, O.J.: A socio-technological analysis of cybercrime and cyber security inNigeria. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 6(3).Olayemi given the almost 4

theory about cyber crimes. Clear explanation about Data collection and data method in the cybercrimes.

  1. Is the overall organization of the paper acceptable and easy for readers to scientificallygrasp?

The paper is easy for the readers but there are no theory and proof. To implementation ofthe or prevention of cyber crimes in the real life.

  1. Is the paper fluently written (in English), is its English understood?

Absolutely understandable written in plain english. One backdrop is the format of the

paper is not good enough to get total idea about the approach. Abstract is not good enough to getidea about total interactive model.

  1. What did you learn from this (homework 2) exercise?

Most importantly the problem as to be prevented from the root level and precaution of the problem is more important than prevention. This study suggest interactive model which will give awareness in the people with limited technology skills. Secondly the approach of the most have correctness with proof.