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Harvard is one of the most commonly used referencing styles among academic institutions. It is widely utilized in social sciences, humanities as well as business subjects. Harvard referencing style uses two major types of citation, that is, in-text citations and reference lists. In-text citations are found inside the content, and in most cases contain some of the bibliography information. The reference lists on the other hand are found at the end of content and these are usually lists of all the information sources mention in the body. While different higher learning institutions apply different institutional variations, Harvard referencing usually follows the format discussed in this guide.
What you need to remember
When doing a referencing list, the sources should be listed in an alphabetical order using the name of the author. If you have several citations from a similar author, list these chronologically using the publication year. Sources can be cited either directly or indirectly. For instance:
Direct: ‘“Pressure increases with depth” (Isaac, 1989, p.7).’
Indirect: ‘As Isaac (1989) notes, pressure increases with depth.’
If you are quoting the source directly, you must include page numbers. For indirectly quoting, the page numbers are not mandatory. In instances where there isn’t a page number, you can use a paragraph number. Ifthe latter is not an option, however, you can use the abbreviations ‘n.pag.’ or ‘n.p’ to show the reader that your source doesn’t have a page number.
Citing different types of content
How to cite a book with a single author
You start with the last name, and capitalize the first letter, then insert the title. Next, state the edition (whether first, second, third, etc.) and lastly mention the city of publication. Your citation should look like the following:
Cathy, W. (2017). A Pimple That Never Dies. Swansea: Delectable Publications. OR
Cathy, W. (2017). A Pimple That Never Dies. 2nd ed. Swansea: Delectable Publications.
How to cite a book with multiple authors (two or three)
You start with the last name then the first name’s initial for all authors, then mention the year, followed by book title and the city of publication. Here are two examples:
Cathy, W. and Aggie, G. (2017). A Pimple That Never Dies. Swansea. Delectable Publications.
Cathy, W., Aggie, G. and Bruce, O.(2017).A Pimple That Never Dies. Swansea. Delectable Publications.
How to cite a book with multiple authors (four or more)
If you are citing a book that has four authors and above, the name of the first author is the only one that should be listed in-text. The other authors will be denoted as ‘et al.’ However, when it comes to composing the referencing list, you will need to include the name of each author in it in the order at which they are credited in their initial work. To make your referencing, start with the last name and first name’s initials of the four authors, followed by the year and title and lastly the city of publication. It should be something like this:
Cathy, W., Aggie, G. and Bruce, O. and Teresa, M. (2017). A Pimple That Never Dies. Swansea. Delectable Publications.
How to citechapters in edited books
If your source is alarge book and want to cite the chapter from which you got your information, make sure to include the range of pages that the chapter covers. If you are doing an individual chapter citation, ensure that the book’s edition is mentioned too, but this will only apply on books thatare releasedin different editions. The general structure of citing a chapter in a book includes the last name and first name’s initial, year and the title of the chapter from which you got your information, the name of the editor, the book title and edition as well as the city of publication. Here is an example:
Cathy, W. (2017). Daily Face Routine. In Danny, B., ed., A Pimple That Never Dies, 3rd ed, Swansea: Delectable Publications, pp.54-75
How to cite multiple books written by the same author
While doing in-text citation, the author’s content will be differentiated by the year of publication. When it comes to creating a reference list, the author’s text will be listed in the order of the yearof publication. If you are citing different works done by a single author and published at the same period, say the same year, label these with ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ ‘d’ etc. after the year of publication. Start with the Last name and the initial of the first name followed by the yearof publication and title of the book. Include the edition too if the book is released in different editions and lastly mention the city of publication. Here is a good example:
Cathy, W. (2010). How To Lose Belly Fat. Swansea: Delectable Publications.
Cathy, W. (2012). Calisthenics For Weight Loss: Swansea: Delectable Publications.
Cathy, W. (2014a). Shed Some Weight With Weighted Vests. Swansea: Delectable Publications.
Cathy, W. (2014b). Fitness Tracking For Healthy Living. Swansea: Delectable Publications.
Cathy, W. (2014c). Does Running Reduce Belly Fat?. Swansea: Delectable Publications.
How To Cite Print Journals
To cite your print journal, start with the last name and the first name’s initial, then the year and article title followed by the name of the journal, the volume (issue) and lastly the page (s). For example:
Bruce, O. (2000). A Man Without Limits. Psychology Research, Volume 2 (6), pp 24-39.
How to cite journal articles accessed on databases or websites
In-text citations for online journal are different from those on print articles in that the former will remain unchanged. The most notable difference will be in the referencing lists. To cite journal articles, start with the last name and first name’s initial followed by the year and article title. Next include the journal name and volume (issue) followed by the pages. You will also be required to include the URL and the date of access. For example:
Bruce, O. (2000). A Man Without Limits. Psychology Research, Volume 2 (6), pp 24-39. Available at: www.psychologyresearch.com/bruceottoman [Accessed: 7 May 2017].
How to cite newspaper articles
Citing newspapers is similar to citing journals. The general structure includes the last name followed by the initial of the first name, the year of publication as well as the name of the newspaper and the page in which the article is published. For example:
Cathy, W. (2013). Do Saunas Enhance Weight Loss? The Citizen, (10), pp. 15-17.
Cathy, W. (2012, August 16). How To Lose Weight Without Exercise The Citizen. Retrieved from: www.thecitizenmag.com/weightlosscathyw2012.
3. Online Sources
How to cite a website
If your source is a website, it is crucial that you ascertain its authorship when doing your citation. If you are referencing an article on the website, check to see if the name of the author is displayed. If not, the website will be credited with the authorship. To get started, state the author or source and the year. Next, mention the page or document title including the date it was last updated. Then insert the URL and the date you accessed the page. For Example:
HealthAndFitness (2012). Best foods for breakfast. [online]. (Last updated 18 March 2014). Available at: www.healthandfitness.com/bestfoodsforbreakfast [Accessed 19 Feb]
How to cite social media
To reference social media, start with the author’s last name followed by the initial of the first name. After this, include the page title or the format of the social media. Next, state the day, month, and the year the content was written as well as the URL and the date you accessed it. For instance:
Cathy, W. (2016). Health and fitness group [Facebook]. Written 7 November, 2010. Available at: www.facebook.com/healthandfitnessgroupcathyw2010 [Accessed 10 January 2018].
4. Visual Mediums and Images
How to cite videos, films, and DVDs
To properly reference content that you have acquired from a visual medium, start with the full title of the video, film, or DVD followed bythe yearin which it was released. Include the name of the director, the country of origin as well as the studio in which it was produced. You can add other details that you deem relevant to your citation. A general structure will look like this:
Best Weight Loss Exercises. (2017). [Film]. Directed by B. Gregg. U.S.A: Fitness Studios.
Harvard referencing has been used since time immemorial by many academic institutions. Students are required to familiarize themselves with this style and the rest of the citation styles used today in order to reference their scholastic papers correctly. If you are having trouble with this specific referencing style and would like some assistance, just contact us for assignment help. We will have your paper written and referenced by our experts so you can understand how it’s done. That way, you will have a better grip of Harvard referencing guide in general and be able to cite your work on your own in the future.